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Vesicles are effectively gas bubbles trapped inside rocks, usually Basalt. These are formed when lava comes out of a volcano, and the air which is then trapped doesn't have time to escape, so when the rock cools, they are trapped. Sometimes, this gas can be several million years old.

Also, these vesicles can be infilled with minerals if the vesicles are at the surface, as when groundwater runs over it, the least soluble minerals drop out and fill up the vesicle to form an amygaloid.

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